Transnational Marketing Journal https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj <p><strong>Transnational Marketing Journal</strong> (TMJ) is dedicated to publishing high quality contemporary research into transnational marketing practices and scholarship while encouraging critical approaches in the development of marketing theory and practice. TMJ is a journal which promotes and show-cases current research into marketing practices and challenges with an emphasis and relevance to cross border practices, issues, challenges facing marketers and researchers alike.</p> <p><strong>ISSN</strong>: 2041-4684 (Print) | <strong>ISSN</strong>: 2041-4692 (Online) | The abbreviated title: Transntl. Market. J.</p> <p><strong>Transnational Marketing Journal </strong>is published three times a year in April, August, and December.</p> <p><strong>Transnational Marketing Journal</strong> is indexed and abstracted by SCOPUS, ERIH Plus, RePEc among others.</p> Transnational Press London en-US Transnational Marketing Journal 2041-4684 Front Matter https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/593 TMJ TPL Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 Reconditioning the Freshman Gene: Can a “Positive Visualisation Course” Successfully modify Freshmen Students’ Perceptions of a University’s Brand Image? https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/552 <p><em>Branding in higher education has proven to be an effective strategy that has received considerable attention in recent years, and a growing number of articles on the subject have begun to appear in the literature. However, a clear gap within the literature indicates that the concept of students’ perceptions of university brand image has not been thoroughly researched. Consequently, this research focuses on investigating the impact of a positive visualization course in brand identity upon the perception of freshmen students of a university’s brand image. A Qualitative Grounded Theory methodological approach has been employed consisting of semi-structured interviews specifically targeting first-year university students. The preliminary findings resulting from this research, reveal a beneficial influence of the positive visualization course in brand identity upon freshmen students’ perceptions of the university’s brand image. Investigating this topic is greatly beneficial since it has enabled the researcher to provide substantial insights into how freshmen students formulate perceptions.</em></p> Marilia Kountouridou Dino Domic Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 203 214 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.1988 Examining the Relationship Between the Level of Cognitive Dissonance Experienced and Customer Satisfaction: A Management and Marketing Perspective https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/553 <p><em>“Cognitive Dissonance” theory refers that a belief, knowledge, or attitude of the individual conflict with the other belief, knowledge, or attitude of the individual. It has a crucial impact on many academic fields, especially in marketing, after being coined to the literature by Festinger (1957). Whilst many studies have been conducted in the literature on the theory that attracts attention all over the world, it has been limited to the examination of the subject with quantitative methods and to handling it from a managerial perspective. On the other hand, customer satisfaction has been exponentially drawn attention upon and signified a key point by service providers especially in the tourism businesses owing to the intensely competitive environment caused by changing new trends in consumer behavior. In this sense, the present study aims to complete this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between customer satisfaction and experienced cognitive dissonance of customers after purchasing accommodation services. In addition to that, it aims to mitigate the dissonance of customers by managers and contributing strategy development to carry out a more valuable accommodation experience. To this end, a questionnaire has been applied to 166 participants who had been accommodated in the tourism business in Mersin, Turkey, and the data has been analyzed by SPSS 26.0. As a result of the analysis, there is a statistically significant relationship between cognitive dissonance level and customer satisfaction.</em></p> Mehmet İsmail Yağcı Onur Başar Özbozkurt Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 215 234 Balancing the segmentation and behavioral principles towards acquiring customer insight. https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/554 <p><em>Digitalization and decentralization within the energy market provide consumers with new opportunities. The trend consequently requires the transformation of energy suppliers’ portfolios beyond energy supply and towards overall household management within business to the customer market. This segment is especially challenging due to its size and variability in habits or behavior related to household management, which includes not only energy supplies but also insurance issues, appliances operations, and service. This study examines, customers’ behavior and their responses to offers of products and services related to household management based on an intrapersonal factor of “age” as an easily accessible and precise type of data about consumers. Dataset examined contains data of customers, who were addressed repeatedly during 24 months from 2019 until 2020 by e-mail offers from a supplier of products and services related to household management. Our results show, that even the age needs to be combined with other factors influencing the decision-making process, it involves the potential to provide vendors insights to improve their targeting and increase the effectiveness in communication with customers.</em></p> Jozef Bucko Emil Exenberger Jana Héjjová Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 235 250 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.1951 The Impact of Perceptions of Social Media Advertisements on Advertising Value, Brand Awareness and Brand Associations: Research on Generation Y Instagram Users https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/551 <p><em>The aim of this paper is to examine how consumer perceptions of social media advertisements affect advertising value and brand awareness. With a rapid increase in the number of social media users over the last ten years, a new advertising domain has become available for companies. Brands that manage social media well in their advertising strategies can quickly influence consumer decision-making and create awareness. However, in social media advertising, which is different from traditional advertising, creating content should be produced and this content should be perceived in a short time by consumers. To achieve this, it is necessary to build rapport with consumers and to present correctly what they wish to see in advertisements by creating awareness. In view of the increasing importance of social media advertising, the study examines how consumer perceptions of Instagram advertisements affect advertising value and brand awareness. This study was conducted with Generation Y consumers on the basis of their Instagram habits, a popular social media app. For this purpose, surveys were held with 665 participants who use Instagram. The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. According to the analysis results, Y-generation’s perceptions of Instagram advertisements have both a positive and negative impact on advertising value and brand awareness and brand associations.</em></p> İbrahim Halil Efendioğlu Yakup Durmaz Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 10 2 251 275 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.1606 Viability of compensating employees in cryptocurrency – An exploratory study https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/532 <p><em>Cryptocurrency is an emerging digital currency that revolutionized the transactional economy. It was valued at $2.2 trillion in April 2021, suggesting the widespread acceptance and usage of the currency. It penetrated numerous sectors including entertainment, infrastructure, healthcare, public sector, agriculture, financial services, travel, retail and information services. Recently these sectors started the practice of compensating employees in cryptocurrency (coins/tokens). This research explored the viability of compensating employees in crypto, across various components of compensation structure. This qualitative informative-exploratory research used the principles from the PRISMA model to screen 8,621 scholarly publications and reviewed 26 research publications and 23 companies using crypto for compensating employees. Content analysis and thematic analysis were conducted to report the findings. This research found that multinational organisations prefer to compensate global employees in crypto because of several advantages including ease of transfer, encrypted features, integration of blockchain technology, tax benefits, cost-saving and gain from crypto investments. Limiting factors such as the bartering nature of crypto, high volatility, tax regulations, limited investment avenues, resistance from employees and the market and concerns over its legality posed some doubts on its viability as a mode of payment. This study is of value to compensation and benefits experts, human resources professionals, finance professionals, scholars, and organisations who are interested in evolving technologies adding value to employees and businesses. This research added a new piece of knowledge concerning paying employees in crypto-currency that remained understudied until now.</em></p> Bharti Pandya Priya Rao Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 277 293 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.2066 Stimulating Salesperson's Innovative Work Behavior: A Study of Microfinance Institutions in Indonesia https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/550 <p><em>In today's uncertain market environment, salesperson innovative work behavior (IWB) has become critical for business sustainability. This research aims to develop a conceptual model for explaining the process of how psychological empowerment, learning goal orientation (LGO), and core self-evaluations (CSE) leverages salespersons' IWB by investigating the potential mediating of knowledge sharing. The participants were 279 salespeople working at microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Central Java, Indonesia. The results revealed that psychological empowerment and LGO are positively related to a salesperson's IWB. Knowledge sharing shares a mediating effect on the relationship between psychological empowerment and LGO on IWB. However, CSE has a nonsignificant effect on the salesperson's IWB. The findings provide a new perspective in understanding the intervening mechanisms underlying psychological empowerment and individual characteristic of a salesperson's IWB. This present study also contributes to the human resource practice regarding nurturing a work environment that stimulates salesperson' IWB.</em></p> Slamet Ahmadi Susanti Widhiastuti Irfan Helmy Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 295 309 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.1586 Consumers' Online Buying Behaviour during COVID-19 Pandemic Using Structural Equation Modeling https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/549 <p><em>Due to the pandemic, businesses turned to alternatives and took up online marketing. E-marketing is a versatile tool for streamlining business processes, reducing managerial costs, reducing turnaround time, maintaining social distance, staying at home, protecting against viruses, and illuminating relationships with customers and business partners. Therefore, this research examined the factors affecting consumers' online purchase behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Both quantitative and descriptive analysis methods were used. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 200 local consumers in Bangladesh. A partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was used to evaluate the data and test the hypotheses. PLS-SEM showed that web design, price, administrative and product had a positive and significant relationship with consumers' online buying behaviour during the pandemic. This research adds theoretical contributions by evaluating the changes of consumers’ online buying behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic.</em></p> Afzal Hossain Shahedul Hasan Sumayya Begum Mohammad Amzad Hossain Sarker Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 311 334 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.1709 The Effect of Perceived Benefits of E-Commerce Platforms on Online Purchase Intentions in The Context of the Pandemic Covid-19 https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/548 <p><em>E-commerce is an emerging market for every business and it has been started to discuss whether the new pandemic context changed the dynamics of this platform. The aim of this study is to investigate how pandemic anxiety has influenced the relationship between the perceptions of e-commerce platforms and purchase intentions. This study examines the moderation effect of pandemic anxiety on the relationship between the effectiveness and economic benefits of e-commerce platforms and online purchase intention. 513 individuals participated in the cross-sectional research survey in which, the perceived effectiveness of e-commerce platforms, economic benefits, pandemic anxiety, and online purchase intentions were measured. The quantitative analysis revealed that pandemic anxiety negatively moderates the relationship between the economic benefit and online purchase intention. Pandemic anxiety seems to alter the economically oriented customer choices and intentions. Our findings reveal that pandemic anxiety negatively moderates the economic benefits and purchase intentions relationship in e-commerce. Individuals in the face of the pandemic threat, seem to choose to invest their material resources to save biological entities and withdrawal from seeking cost reduction in e-commerce activities. We think that the priority of economic benefit in e-commerce changed to saving health due to the pandemic context.</em></p> Begüm Şahin Murat Güler Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 335 349 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.2079 Mapping Corporate Social Responsibility Research: A Bibliometric analysis https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/546 <p><em>Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a multidisciplinary concept which has gained attention with numerous exploratory, descriptive and empirical research conducted worldwide across various academic fields. This paper quantitatively analyses the existing research in order to provide scientific mapping on this subject area. The objective of the study is to summarise the existing research and identify future scope of research on the topic corporate social responsibility. For this Scopus database is selected to extract research documents, since it is a wide database that provides quality research articles on the topic. Total 1301 research documents published across 315 journals as well as 7946 sources referred by these articles were extracted following the scientific search on the Scopus database in order to conduct Bibliometric analysis over biblioshiny. Biblioshiny is a web-based software using R studio through which descriptive analysis, citation analysis, co-citation analysis, Thematic analysis, network analysis and data visualization is conducted. Thematic analysis in the study suggests various new themes have evolved across the topic making the topic interdisciplinary. Citation and co-citation analysis indicate existence of influential authors and documents with limited author collaboration in research expertise on this topic. The study identifies the emerging themes as well as prospective and new themes like environment, carbon credit, innovation, and decision making for future studies on this subject area. The results of the study provide insights for policy makers for promoting sustainable and conclusive development.</em></p> Rameet Kaur Sawhney Puneeta Goel Sachin Bhardwaj Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 351 373 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.2057 Pereira Market Scan: Market Intelligence Framework https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/544 <p><em>The increasing competitiveness of market search related with information needs led to several companies to invest in new forms of decision making and models applied to scientific methods to position them as market leaders and to extract added value. This study was conducted with the propose of developing a market tool to allow a deeper and more pragmatic analysis to client’s value and clients life cycle in order to contribute to the competitiveness of companies with relevant outputs and increase the market share of his company in a more conscious, objective way. The findings of this study allowed to quickly identify and to mitigate the type of problems which affect the organization and thus provide benefits to all the stakeholders that are in interaction with organizations.</em></p> Leandro Pereira José Santos Carlos Jerónimo Rui Vinhas da Silva Natália Teixeira Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 375 386 Stimulating Salesperson's Innovative Work Behavior: A Study of Microfinance Institutions in Indonesia https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/563 <p><em>In today's uncertain market environment, salesperson innovative work behavior (IWB) has become critical for business sustainability. This research aims to develop a conceptual model for explaining the process of how psychological empowerment, learning goal orientation (LGO), and core self-evaluations (CSE) improve salespersons' IWB by investigating the potential mediating of knowledge sharing. The participants were 279 salespeople working at microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Central Java, Indonesia. The results revealed that psychological empowerment and LGO are positively related to a salesperson's IWB. Knowledge sharing shares a mediating effect on the relationship between psychological empowerment and LGO on IWB. However, CSE has a nonsignificant effect on the salesperson's IWB. The findings provide a new perspective in understanding the intervening mechanisms underlying psychological empowerment and individual characteristic of a salesperson's IWB. This present study also contributes to the human resource practice in sales organization setting regarding nurturing a work environment that stimulates salesperson' IWB.</em></p> Slamet Ahmadi Susanti Widhiastuti Irfan Helmy Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 387 401 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.1586 Travel Intentions And Preferences Amid the Covid-19 Pandemic: the Case of Bulgaria https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/540 <p><em>The paper deals with travel intentions and preferences of Bulgarian residents amid the pandemic as identified in a survey conducted online with 350 participants in April-May 2021. The analysis covers (1) intended frequency of different types of travel, (2) general travel preferences, and (3) specific preferences regarding the choice of accommodation. It also explores which demographic and social factors determine travel intentions and preferences during the pandemic. Both expected and unexpected findings are presented, with some wide-spread anticipations being challenged in a specific country context. Results show that people have become more restrained towards all types of travel, especially abroad and for business. However, in the case of Bulgaria the shift toward domestic tourism seems forced by external constraints rather than due to internal factors such as health risk perceptions of strong patriotic feelings. Of paramount importance for the travel choices of Bulgarian customers is the combination of economic and sanitary factors providing both financial and health safety. In contrast to most studies around the world, ‘pure’ health-related preferences associated with the level of COVID-19 contamination or vaccination are of relatively low significance. Age stands out as a major determinant of travel intentions and preferences while other socio-demographic factors are not clearly related to intended frequency of travel but do matter in terms of various travel preferences. </em></p> Elka Dogramadjieva Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 403 423 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.2327 Determining Attributes for Discrete Choice Experiments in Consumer Research https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/542 <p><em>Attribute development for Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) through qualitative research is a shallowly covered area. Particularly, research is scant in terms of detail about attribute reduction and development. First of all, the paper reviews the literature and justify DCEs as an appropriate method for determining consumer preferences, with particular focus on services. The researcher conducted a DCE on preferences for restaurants for leisure purposes. Whilst finding there was not a clear guidance, the author proposes a clear methodology for guiding DCE researchers regarding the determination of attributes in consumer research, particularly in the service industry. The case study of restaurant attribute development is used. In this context, the first stage consisted in a thorough review of the literature combined with a thematic analysis of six focus group interviews conducted in the South East of the UK. Attribute reduction took place through constant comparison analysis and the method is comprehensively explained in the paper. The study also looked for control variables and found that occasion for eating out is a very salient variable to be tested in the following DCE which consisted in an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint online survey (Sawtooth Software). It was found the that combining literature review with focus group interviews results in richer attributes because they are based on more complex and nuanced data. Finally, a proposal with nine steps for attribute development is provided.</em></p> Pedro Longart Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 425 441 10.33182/tmj.v10i2.2033 Towards sustainability: The Impact of Environmental Sustainability of Consumer Goods in the Italian Packaging Sector https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/541 <p><em>Sustainable development is the path of the present and the economic and productive future. The pandemic has transformed the purchasing habits of goods, especially food products, its packaging and consequently the packaging sector as a whole is directly involved. Together with this remarkable transformation, sustainability represents another challenge of equal impact. Two surveys carried out by Nomisma Observatory in 2019 and 2020 targeting 1,000 and 1,008 consumers respectively on consumer packaged goods together with some direct qualitative interviews with packaging companies helped understand how consumer sensitization to issues of sustainability can change the packaging products, the materials used and the production methods and technologies. Manufacturing and packaging companies are facing a difficult challenge to better communicate the issue of sustainability through their products and the challenge of their clients in finding adequate margins to accelerate change in a market of consumers who are in part sensitive to sustainable development but not so willing to change their consumer spending behaviour. This study examines the possible obstacles in the value chain starting from the companies that produce packaging machinery, which must be able to process new materials, up to the production companies which in turn use such machinery for packaging their product to be offered to the final consumer. It is a team game that must involve government, industry, retailers and consumers. Enabling technologies, properly used, may provide a solution to this difficult balance in the future. </em></p> Lucio Poma Haya Al Shawwa Francesco Nicolli Valentina Quaglietti Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Marketing Journal 2022-09-26 2022-09-26 10 2 443 457 10.33182/tmj.v10i3.2050 Editorial https://tmj.tplondon.com/index.php/tmj/article/view/592 <p>In this second issue of 2022, we are happy to announce that we have joined the editorial team at Transnational Marketing Journal. It is a tremendous challenge and responsibility but one duty that we are looking forward to give our fullest.</p> Pedro Longart Katia Iankova Copyright (c) 2022 Transnational Press London 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 10 2 201 202